# Long-Term Per Capita GDP by EU and US State, Second Quarter 2021

Dec 22, 2021

The chart above shows the per capita annualized nominal gross domestic product (GDP) in each EU and US state as of the second quarter of 2021 in dollars, the change from five years ago, and the GDP ten years prior.  There are six states that have a lower per capita GDP now than ten years ago.

## Findings

• The difference between the state with the largest per capita GDP, Luxembourg, and the state with the smallest, Bulgaria, is \$159,741.78 (up from \$115,154.80 five years ago and up from \$116,294.67 ten years ago).  Luxembourg and Bulgaria had the largest and smallest per capita GDP respectively both five and ten years ago.
• Luxembourg has 16.06 times the per capita GDP that Bulgaria does.  The ratio of largest per capita GDP to smallest per capita GDP was down from 16.72 five years ago and up from 15.12 ten years ago.
• The median per capita GDP in the 28 EU states is \$31,554.76 (up from \$25,979.27 five years ago and up from \$29,904.33 ten years ago) and the mean \$43,065.64 (up from \$32,952.56 five years ago and up from \$36,168.79 ten years ago).
• The median per capita GDP in the 50 US states is \$67,731.42 (up from \$55,938.56 five years ago and up from \$47,192.97 ten years ago) and the mean \$68,732.37 (up from \$56,920.55 five years ago and up from \$49,072.29 ten years ago).
• The median per capita GDP in the 78 EU and US states is \$61,262.43 (up from \$50,244.48 five years ago and up from \$45,411.98 ten years ago) and the mean \$59,518.67 (up from \$48,316.66 five years ago and up from \$44,440.27 ten years ago).
• Of the 78 states, 78 (28 EU, 50 US) had a per capita GDP rise in current dollars over the past five years while 0 (0 EU, 0 US) had a per capita GDP drop.
• Of the 78 states, 72 (23 EU, 49 US) had a per capita GDP rise in current dollars over the past ten years while 6 (5 EU, 1 US) had a per capita GDP drop.
• Some EU gains and drops in per capita GDP are attributed to currency rate fluctuations.

## Caveats

• GDP data is from the second quarter of 2021, 2016, and 2011.
• US census data is from 2000 and 2010, EU census data is from 2001 and 2011.
• The data is seasonally adjusted in current dollars.
• Euros are converted to dollars at an average exchange rate of 1.21 for the second quarter of 2021, 1.13 for the second quarter of 2016, and 1.44 for the second quarter of 2011 according to historic rates listed at the Federal Reserve (see source link below).
• US data comes in an annualized format which the EU does not, thus EU data is annualized by multiplying the quarterly figure by four.
• US growth rates may differ from those provided by the Bureau of Economic Analysis as the BEA's growth rates are based on chained dollars in conjunction with the chain index or the quality index for real GDP.  The growth rates listed here are based on nominal GDP.
• All figures are rounded to the nearest hundredth.

## Details

In absolute terms, Greece had the worst performance over the past five years with a gain of \$1,796.23.  Luxembourg had the best performance with a gain of \$47,872.15.  Over the past ten years, Greece had the worst performance with a drop of \$7,255.32 while Ireland had the best performance with a gain of \$56,798.17.

In relative terms, Hawaii had the worst performance over the past five years with a 7.30% gain in per capita GDP while Ireland had the best performance with a 74.01% rise in per capita GDP.  Over the past ten years, Greece had the worst performance with a 27.12% drop in per capita GDP while Ireland had the best performance with a 103.94% rise in per capita GDP.

There were 2 states (1 EU, 1 US) with a per capita GDP of over \$80,000 ten years ago, 1 state (1 EU, 0 US) five years ago, and 11 states (2 EU, 9 US) now.  On the flip side, there were 50 states (21 EU, 29 US) with a GDP of less than \$50,000 ten years ago, 38 states (24 EU, 14 US) five years ago, and 21 states (18 EU, 3 US) now.

Ireland (from 15th to 2nd highest per capita GDP), Utah (from 26th to 13th), and Idaho (from 55th to 42nd) rose 13 spots in the past five years, while Hawaii (from 20th to 31st) fell 11 spots.  Over the past ten years, Utah (from 38th to 13th) rose 25 spots, while the Netherlands (from 14th to 39th) and Finland (from 24th to 49th) fell 25 spots.

Seven EU states surpassed 24 US states over the past five years.  However, eight EU states were surpassed by 12 US states in the same time period.  Over the past ten years, one EU state surpassed ten US states while 12 EU states were surpassed by 44 states.

## Sources

Federal Reserve.  2021.  "Foreign Exchange Rates."  Accessed December 2, 2021.  https://www.federalreserve.gov/releases/g5/.

Office for National Statistics.  2021.  "Gross Domestic Product at market prices: Current price: Seasonally adjusted £m - Office for National Statistics."  Accessed December 1, 2021.  https://www.ons.gov.uk/economy/grossdomesticproductgdp/timeseries/ybha/ukea.

US Bureau of Economic Analysis.  2021.  "GDP by State."  Accessed November 30, 2021.  https://www.bea.gov/data/gdp/gdp-state.

United States Census Bureau.  September 2012.  "United States Summary: 2010: Population and Housing Unit Counts."  Accessed January 23, 2018.  https://www.census.gov/prod/cen2010/cph-2-1.pdf.